(Published in Magonia 94, January 2007)
In 1733 Jacob Ilve, a type-founder and printer, made an oration at a meeting in London, at which he asserted that there is a plurality of worlds, and that this earth is hell. Though this hardly seems to be biblical concept, he justified it by quoting Psalm 19.2: “The Heavens declare the Glory of God. He calls them Heavens, because they are above the earth, for so are the Mansions, they are to us Heavens, i.e. Places out of human Reach.” And again, John 14:2, “In my Father’s house are many mansions”: “it may justly be concluded, that they are inhabited by Beings who are far superior to us in Goodness. Hence some have affirmed, that our Earth is the only Rebellious World, the lowest of the Creation, and the Region of Darkness … It is also manifest that these glorious Places are inhabited b} Beings who have attained greater Perfection than we of this Globe. Hence naturally arises this Maxim, That the Souls or angelic Beings of those who have attained the greatest Perfection in this Life are admitted into those celestial Orbs, into the Company of those for whom they are prepared, according to their several various Attainments in Goodness.” (1) This seems to have been the first sentiment of its kind in English. That there may be other solar systems with planets like ours had been suggested by scientists since the sixteenth century; in Hindu and Buddhist scriptures, there had been for millenia the religious concept of other worlds – - not other planets in the modern sense, but worlds that we would now say to be in other dimensions. Now the two ideas could be knitted together.
Later, Ilve published the Book of Jasher, a retelling of the first six books of the Bible, which, he said, had been found in the Holy Land by an eighth century traveller and translated into English, though, since the text was in eighteenth century English – a different language, in effect – the forgery was not very convincing. The work, which had a sufficient vogue to provoke a printed attack, presents a liberalised view of religion, but unfortunately does not go into any more detail about other worlds.(2)
On the other hand, he was not liberal with regard to sexual matters. Having been imprisoned for debt in Clerkenwell, he wrote a tract about the appalling conditions in the jail where both men and women were interned and in many cases found that there was only one way to pass the time. This seemed to distress hive more than prisoners dying. (3)
The term “New Age” is derived from Emanuel Swedenborg (1038-1772), a Swedish scientist who in his fifties started having mystical visions, resigned his technical post and wrote a huge number of books on his experiences. “When discoursing with (departed) spirits he generally stood upon his feet looking up, at an angle of 45 degrees; his assent to and dissent from their arguments was generally expressed by a `yea’, `yea’, or ‘nay’, ‘nay’, spoke very quick, waiting and paying great attention to their responses which he generally wrote down in a book, and then rose up again immediately to resume his conversations.” (4)
As well as talking to the spirits. Swedenborg was given a guided tour of the kingdoms of heaven, and taught the doctrines of the spirits: he denied that angels were created as such, but that, rather. “there are no Spirits and Angels, but what were of the Human Race”; spirits and angels were formerly human, but have evolved into higher beings.
Orthodox Christians. tend to reject the possibility of life on other planets, on some such grounds as that it is not mentioned in the Bible. By contrast, Swedenborg, like Ilve, could take life on many worlds in his stride:
“That there are several Earths [i.e. planets), and Men upon them, and thence Spirits and Angels, is a thing most perfectly well known in another Life, for it is there granted to every one who desires it from a Love of Truth and consequent Use, to discourse with the Spirits of other Earths, and thereby to be confirmed concerning a Plurality of Worlds, and to be informed, that the human Race is not confined to one Earth only, but extends to Earths unnumerabie..."
"He who believes, as every one ought to believe, that the Deity created the Universe for no other End, than that Mankind, and thereby Heaven, might have Existence, (for Mankind is the Seminary of Heaven) must needs believe also, that wheresoever there is any Earth, there likewise are Men-Inhabitants."
"The End of the Creation of the Universe Is Man, in Order that an Angelic Heaven might be formed of Men; but what would Mankind and an Angelic Heaven from one single Earth avail to answer the Purposes of an infinite Creator, for which a Thousand, yea Ten Thousand Earths would not suffice?" (5)
Swedenborg was himself able to make psychic journeys to some of these other planets, those of this solar system and a couple outside it. What he saw on these worlds was at odds with the subsequent findings of astronomers, for example: "In the Planet Venus there are two Kinds of Men, of Tempers and Dispositions opposite to each other: the first mild and humane, the second savage and almost brutal: they who are mild and humane appear on the further Side of the Earth, They who are savage and almost brutal appear on the Side looking this Way," (6)
Though the actual term New Age has only been regularly used since the 1950s, there has been a recognisable movement ever since. The most important development in the nineteenth century was the advent of the Theosophical Society, whose founder, Madame Blavatsky, presented a syncretistic system combining elements of many religions as being her picture of the "whole truth". Now, such a belief system can keep on growing, since in a religion filled with strange beings and way out worlds, there is always room for more.
Much of Blavatsky's key work Secret Doctrine was taken up with the theory (derived in some obscure way from Hindu scripture) of the seven "root races" of humanity, of which we are the fifth. The fourth race had lived on Atlantis, and the Third on Lemuria, these two being lost continents of the Atlantic and Pacific respectively. Atlantis, whose legend goes back at least as far as the time of Plato, had recently been publicised in a book by Ignatius Donnelly; Lemuria had been postulated as a former Pacific continent, originally to explain the distribution of lemurs; later, Haeckel suggested it had been the cradle of the human race; so that her theory appeared to harmonise new and old, science and religion.
Blavatsky's disciples Annie Besant and Charles Leadbeater added to her account, expanding it to include evolutionary cycles on other planets, and "Helpers from outside". Blavatsky, in the Book of Dzyan (a set of cryptic utterances which form the basis for The Secret Doctrine), had referred to the Lords of the Flame: "Males-Females will they be. Lords of the Flame also ... They went each on his allotted Land; Seven of them, each on his Lot. The Lords of the Flame remain behind. They would not go, they would not create ... The Third remained mind-less. Their Jivas were not ready. These were set apart among the Seven. They became narrow-headed. The Third were ready. "In these shall we dwell," said the Lords of the Flame and of the Dark Wisdom."(7) They were now given an extraterrestrial origin: These included "the Lords of the Flame, who arrived from Venus ... in the middle of the third Root-Race, to quicken mental evolution, to found the Occult Hierarchy of the Earth, and to take over the government of the globe". Their arrival was described thus:
"The great Lemurian Polar Star was still perfect, and, the huge crescent still stretched along the quator, including Madagascar. The sea which occupied what is now the Gobi Desert still broke against the rocky barriers of the northern Himalayan slopes, and all was being prepared for the most dramatic moment in the history of the Earth - the coming of the LORDS OF THE FLAME ... it was about six and a half million years ago ... Then with the mighty roar of swift descent from incalculable heights, surrounded, by blazing masses of fire which filled the sky with shooting tongues of flame, the vessel of the Lords of the Flame flashed through the aerial spaces. It halted over the White Island which lay in the Gobi Sea. Green it was, and radiant with the fairest blossoms as Earth offered her fairest and best to welcome her King." (8)
Similar ideas were promoted by others not specifically aligned to Theosophy. In his Fourteen Lectures on Yogi Philosophy, 1903, a book which discusses auras, telepathy, clairvoyance, occult therapeutics, the astral world, and so on, the Yogi Ramacharaka (otherwise an American barrister name William Walker Atkinson) stated: "The earth is one of a chain of planets, belonging to our solar system, all of which are intimately connected with the others in this great law of Spiritual Evolution. Great waves of life sweep over the chain, carrying race after race along the chain, from one planet to another. Each race stays on each planet for a certain period, and then having developed, passes on to the planet next highest in the scale of evolution, finding there conditions best suited for its development ... For instance, occultists know that the ancient Egyptians - the Atlanteans - the ancient Persians, etc., etc., are now living on this earth, - that is the souls which formerly incarnated in these races are now incarnated in some f the modern races. But there are other races - prehistoric races - which have passed away from the earth's attraction entirely, and have gone on to higher planes of action in the higher planets." (9)
Venusians also found their way into ritual. In the initiation ceremony to Dion Fortune's Fraternity of the Inner Light in London, founded in the 1930s ... the candidate was informed that "asbestos and honey-bee were brought to Earth from Venus by a 'Master of the Wisdom',this information being "derived from Don Fortune's mediumship)" (10)
The nineteenth century craze for spiritualism had led to a much larger number of scriptures and inspired writing becoming available. In about 1880 a New York dentist named John Henry Newborough purchased a typewriter on the instruction of angels who had materialised in his bedroom. Each morning he would sit for an hour with his fingers on the keys, and by automatic typing produced Oahspe, which purported to be a true version of the Bible. (11) The book describes special ships called airavagnas, that 'fly through the heavens. They are not material, but are used to transport the Gods and angels between the heavenly worlds: "As mortals sail corporeal ships across the corporeal ocean, so sailed the ship of God in the atmospherean ocean." (12) Nevertheless this was a step towards the idea of spacecraft.
In Britain occultists were not well regarded by society at large and often felt it advisable to keep their interests secret. But there was one part of the world where new religions, and mystical movements of all kinds, were a growth industry, and that was California. In 1900 Kathleen Tingley, a breakaway Theosophist known as "The Purple Mother" chose to establish a community in "a White City in a land of Gold beside a Sunset Sea" that is at Point Lama in San Diego. It is true that they did not win immediate respectability, and a certain General Harrison Gray Otis wrote a series of articles in the Los Angeles Times accusing the Community of "gross immoralities", but Tingley sued for libel and eventually won. (13)
Typically, the Self-Realization Fellowship, established in the state from 1925 by the Indian guru Paramhansa Yogananda, regarded all religions as valid, though it mainly taught Yoga. The Self Realization Church of All Religions was built at Hollywood in 1942, which contained statues of Lahiri Mahasay and Sri Yukteswar (Yogananda's own teachers), along with Krishna. Buddha, Confucius, Moses, Christ at the Last Supper, St. Francis, and, since Moslems do not make statues of Mohammed, a picture of the Kaaba at Mecca. (14) Thus, the typical Californian cult combined elements from many religions.
Other groups of a Theosophical type soon arose in the state. A Rosicrucian society was founded by Max Heindel (1865-1919, left). (This is one of at least twenty-three American societies termed "Rosicrucian", which have little or nothing in common with each other except that all claim, without any documentary evidence, to be a continuation of the original sixteenth century German Rosicrucian Order). Heindel said that his teaching were based on his understanding of what he had learnt from the elder brothers of a secret temple of the Rosy Cross in Europe, but they could well have been derived from Katherine Tingley's Universal Brotherhood, to which he had previously belonged, and the teachings of Rudolf Steiner (another occultist who had split off from the Theosophical Society), whose lectures he had heard in Germany. His Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception presents a highly complex scheme of human evolution, in which space entities had a hand:
"The immediate Leaders of humanity ... were Beings much further advanced than man along the path of evolution. They came on this errand of love from the two planets which are located between the Earth and the Sun - Venus and Mercury" (15)
Around 1930 there arrived in the state a Polish immigrant whose business card described him as: "Prof. G. Adamski, Speaker and Teacher of Universal Laws and the Founder of Universal Progressive Christianity, Royal Order of Tibet and the monastery at Laguna Beach, Headquarters, Hotel Castle Green, 99 S. Raymond Ave., Pasadena, California." From what is known of his teachings they bore no resemblance to either Christianity or Tibetan religion, e.g. "Universe means not just our solar system but space without circumference in which dwell billions of our solar systems. The Royal Order of Tibet is interested only in revealing what is thought to be mysteries so that they may be used practically in the present field of life where man may understand his fellowman by understanding the laws which rule all creatures, thereby awakening from the dream-life to the reality which leads to Mastery. It is an Order based on the highest and the simplest teachings in the field of Mastery ..." It is evident that, even if he himself had not quite Mastered English grammar, he had Mastery of the art of using many grand words without thereby conveying any meaning. (16)
In 1883-6 Frederick S. Oliver, then a teenager living with his parents near Mount Shasta in northern California, penned a lengthy manuscript entitled A Dweller on Two Planets. Oliver stated in the "Amanuensis' Preface": "I do not believe myself its Author, but that one of those mysterious persons, if my readers choose to so consider him, an adept of the arcane and occult in the universe, better understood from reading this book, is the Author". Rather, an entity called Phylos the Tibetan had dictated it to him at sporadic intervals, in nighttime sessions of up to a few hours.
Whoever the author may have been, what he wrote tended to confirm the beliefs of the Theosophists and New Agers. More than half the narrative concerned the author's past life as Zailm, an Atlantean, with many details of that civilisation. They had developed "vailxi", aerial ships of torpedo shape which could travel at hundreds of miles an hour (an incredible speed in the 1880s). A more recent incarnation was Walter Pierson, a modern American who had fought at Missionary Ridge in the Civil War. He then went to California where he met a Chinese named Quong who had strange powers.
People do not know, the author says, that the face of Mount Shasta (in the sight of which the book was written) "conceals a doorway. We do not suspect this, nor that a long tunnel stretches far away, far into the interior of majestic Shasta. Wholly unthought is it that there lie at the tunnel's far end vast apartments - the home of a mystic brotherhood, whose occult arts hollowed that tunnel and mysterious dwelling..."
Pierson's Chinese friend gave him access to the hideaway of this "Lothinian Brotherhood", and initiated him into its secrets. He was taught that the human race evolved through seven planets (with seven races on each planet), of which this is the fourth. The first two are invisible to us, the third was Mars, the next will be Venus, and the last two are likewise invisible. Already "the more advanced, occult souls do inhabit Venus". (17) Pierson, or Phylos (his future name, he was told) was allowed to visit Venus in his spirit body.
At this time the Pacific Electric Railway operated the "Mount Lowe Observatory", actually a tourist attraction with just one small telescope. (18) The resident astronomer, Edgar L. Larkin, once trained his telescope on Mount Shasta, and "was surprised to see a glimmering curved surface that was truly unusual ... As the sun shone upon this glittering object among the trees he was impressed with the thought that he was looking at a gold-tinted dome of some Oriental building ... as the sun moved in its course he was impressed that there were two domes rising above the tree tops near Shasta and that the part of a third one could be seen several hundred feet distant ... he left his telescope fixed to see what these things would look like in the setting sun and in darkness. He was surprised to find later in the might that around this dome were great lights, apparently white, which partially illuminatcd and made them visible even though there was no moon to cast any light at the time." (19)
Larkin died in 1924, but his claims were repeated by journalist Edward Lanser, in an article in the Los Angeles Sunday Times on 22 May 1932. He alleged that, when on a train to Portland, Oregon he went to the observation platform of the express to watch the sunrise, and was captivated by Mt. Shasta:
"I suddenly perceived that the whole southern side of the mountain was ablaze with a strange reddish green light ... My first conjecture was a forest fire,. but the total absence of smoke discounted that theory. The light resembled the glow of Roman candles." (20)
Though nowadays sightings of domes associated with strange lights would be taken as evidence for flying saucers, rumour then had it that they were the work of people living inside Mount Shasta, who were Lemurians, survivors of the sunken Pacific continent of Lemuria. Lanser also repeated stories that the Lemurians sometimes appeared in neighbouring towns, dressed in long white robes, to buy supplies, which they paid for with gold nuggets.
In 1929 the American Magazine published an article, 'Seven Minutes in Eternity' by William Dudley Pelley, who described how while residing in the Sierra Madre Mountains near Pasadena, one night he suddenly left his physical body and soared away into the spirit realm, returning with messages for humanity from the 'Masters', this being the usual Theosophical term for spirit teachers. The journal was 'swamped' with letters, enabling Pelley to begin his own movement. However, it soon took a political turn, spawning the "Foundation for Christian Economics" in 1932 and the "Silver Legion" in 1933. The latter, better known as the Silver Shirts, more or less openly admired Adolf Hitler. (21)
The biggest difficulty with research in this field is locating the primary sources. I confess that I have not seen the original American Magazine article, nor the channeled messages which were published under the title Star Guests; my local library did have one of Pelley's political works, but it is now missing presumed withdrawn. But Star Guests is said to contain messages from 'Invisible Intellects' who can cross intergalactic distances in a twinkling, who stated that "Souls from Sirius migrated to Earth millions of years ago", showing that communications from other worlds were now commonplace. (22)
In August 1934, by which time Pelley was having problems with the law, two disciples, Guy and Edna Ballard of Chicago, began to publish their own messages from beyond, ascribed to one 'Saint Germain'. Historically, the Comte de Saint Germain was an eighteenth century French adventurer who claimed to have discovered the elixir of immortality and to be thousands of years old, but this Saint Germain was an 'Ascended Master', that is, in his last life he overcame the flesh and bodily rose to the next world rather than dying. They were quickly able to attract followers from the Silver Shirts, Pelley's treasurer becoming the Ballards' Associate Director, a post that he held until, despite being under the personal protection of the Ascended Masters, he was seriously injured in a car accident.
The couple were soon touring the country, propounding their spiritual creed - similar to that of Pelley - and a "Save America" programme. Their reception varied, for instance on one occasion Mr. Ballard had to admit that "The Love Gifts were less in West Palm Beach than usual". a misfortune he attributed to evil forces opposed to their work. But these influences did not pervade everywhere, so that "these two people and their son Donald arrived in Los Angeles in a none-too-prosperous condition in an unpretention car, but when they left, they zoomed away in a couple of flashy cream-colored Chryslers." (23)
Under the name Godfré Ray King, Ballard issued Unveiled Mysteries, an account of some of his meetings with the Ascended Master, the first of which occurred on Mount Shasta. Saint Germain allowed him to revisit scenes of his past lives; in Egypt, Atlantis, Lemuria and other places. He was also shown the inside of the mountain. His account of all this appears to owe something to Phylos the Tibetan:
"The ledge was broken and twisted as if by some rending convulsion. All about the base lay huge fragments broken off the face of the wall. Against the cliff rested a giant block many tons in weight ... he touched the enormous quadrangular block. Immediately it tipped on edge and leaned outward ... I followed, the door was replaced, and I found that the passage led into the mountain ... After going about two hundred feet we came to a door made apparently of bronze ... This door gave entrance to a large circular chamber ..."(24)
"Going to a point where huge masses of stone lay in confusion, as, if giants had hurled them in a war upon each other, Saint Germain touched a great boulder. Instantly, the enormous mass tipped out ... We entered and, to my astonishment, stood before a large bronze door ... He stepped forward and pressed certain points on the door. The great mass of bronze weighing many tons swung slowly open, and admitted us into a spacious chamber from which a stairway, cut in the solid rock, led downward. We descended some two hundred feet, and entered another space, circular in shape." (25)
Gerald Bryan, author of the highly critical study Psychic Dictatorship in America, pinpointed several other plagiarisms from occult novels, including Will Carver's The Brother of the Third Degree, 1894, which featured the Comte de St. German, Lillian Elizabeth Roy's The Prince of Atlantis, 1929, and Maude Lesseuer Howard's Myriam and the Mystic Brotherhood, circa 1920. In short, the book was basically a stew of ideas which had already been circulating for years.
Unveiled Mysterieswas followed by a series of progressively more tedious sequels, in the first of which, Magic Prescence, repeatedly spoke of the: "Mighty I AM", and the Ballard movement came to be known as "I AM". The phrase appears to derive from the King James Bible, where God says to Moses: "This shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you" (Ex.3:14) but it may also come from Phylos's term for the true self, as distinguished from the shells it may inhabit: "Though the astral shell shall come into spiritualistic circles and manifest through mediums, yet the I AM comes not into any earthly condition until it returns for reincarnation". (25) According to Bryan it was also commonly used in Baird Spalding's Life and Teaching of the Masters of the Far East.
On New Year's Eve 1930 Saint Germain told Ballard: "Tonight an experiment is to be tried which has not been accomplished for over seventy thousand years." This involved a Cosmic Mirror which was apparently a sort of teleportation device, for after those present had meditated on the 'Oneness' of Venus, with Earth; a tremendous blaze of light flashed forth upon it, revealing a group of people in the far distance, who drew nearer. "Presently, twelve Guests from Venus stood in our midst, robed in white scintillating garments, surpassing all power of description. There were seven gentlemen and five ladies, all extremely handsome." (27) They spent the evening exchanging information and playing musical instruments.
Venusians proved to be helpful in the struggle against the 'entities' who opposed the work of the Mighty I AM, for instance the Tall Master From Venus stated "that if the Christian Scientists did not stop opposing this work they would empty their churches". Students were encouraged to pray against these energies by calling upon the "Lords of the Flame" from Venus to defeat then. (One of these, the `Mighty Astrea' was referred to as `he'; which is curious since Astrea is the Roman Goddess of Justice. (28)
Guy Ballard left this world on 29 December 1939. His wife declared that he had ascended to join Saint Germain, but his death certificate more prosaically attributed his demise to heart disease and cirrhosis of the liver. After that the I AM movement declined, but did not expire: Edna Ballard continued to run it until her own death or ascension in 1971, and last time I was in Watkin's occult bookshop there was a complete set of the I AM discourses prominently displayed on one shelf.
If space beings can come here, then one may suppose that the converse is also possible. One early journey to another planet is said to have occurred in 1939, though it was not published until 1956. Dana Howard was picked rep from Superstition Mountain in Arizona by a "gem-studded" rocket-shaped craft, which took her to Venus, in company with an American Indian and a prospector. The Venusians were peaceful vegetarians who lived under the benign maternal rule of Queen Zo-na. This is a curious name for a monarch, since in Hebrew it means "harlot".
Eventually she was told she must return to Earth, which particularly upset her as she had fallen in love with the Lelando, son of the High Priest. Her lover told her they could marry, so that they would be together in spirit even though separated by millions of miles. They pricked their fingers and mingled their blood during the ceremony, which apart from this was much the same, as that in the Book of Common Prayer, but then they had to part. (29)
According to David Jacobs, all of this happened "while she was napping on her living room couch" (30), and it is interesting to notice that Howard herself did not regard her trip as having been taken in a nuts and bolts ship: "Many times since that memorable date I have tried to arrive at some logical conclusion as to what actually happened, Did I leave my body behind, travelling only in a finer vehicle? Or was it true teleportation and I took my body with me? Did the atoms of my body actually disintegrate at one point, re-materialize in another?" (31) I mention this because most studies of contactees have concluded that their stories are, gasp, not true, without addressing the question of whether they believe what they say. Dana Howard does seem to have been telling the truth as she saw it. Apparently she was also able to keep in touch with her husband in some unspecified way, for she told the second Giant Rock spacecraft convention in March 1955 that "She last heard from him about six weeks ago." (32)
Really, this was nothing new: all through history people, have been ascending to the third heaven, flying to the witches' sabbat, or the like, but just what they experience depends upon their cultural background. Up until the Middle Ages, witches would consort nocturnally with the Moon Goddess, but after centuries of propaganda by the Church, who maintained that this was devilish, Diana came to be replaced by Satan. Now the experience had modified itself again to fit with the latest views of the cosmos.
There seems to have been another, similar occurrence the same year, but am unable to learn anything about it, beyond a note in James Lewis's UFO Encyclopedia that the 'Cosmic Star Temple' was founded in Santa Barbara in 1960 by Violet Gilbert, a former I AM member who had been to Venus in 1939. (33)
The beginning of the craze for flying saucers has been well illustrated by a recent Stationary Office publication, UFOs in America 1947, which is a collection of original documents and newspaper reports. (The first is an account of a sighting of nine craft over Mount Rainier, Washington State, on 24 June 1947, and the witness's name is deleted, despite it having appeared in hundreds of books. This kind of fact leads one to doubt if all the other information relating to UFOs, and still kept confidential by the U.S. government, is of such interest as is supposed , by conspiracy theorists.)
Much of the coverage in the opening weeks was concerned with crashes which, however, all proved disappointingly mundane when investigated. On 6 July it was reported that the Rev. Joseph Brassy of St. Joseph's Church, Grafton, Wisconsin, had found a disc in his parish yard "which might be one of the mysterious flying saucers." An FBI investigation quickly revealed that "the priest was intoxicated" and that the disc "was a circular saw blade with a few wires attached." Another, found at Laurel, Maryland, "had been made front a Gulf 0il sign and the top of a garbage can ... attached to it were a dry cell battery, a flashlight bulb, some wires and a buzzer" according to a police sergeant. The smoking remains of a reputed crashed saucer in Nebraska were in fact tobacco ash. (34)
A Gallup poll conducted that August asked people what they thought they were: 33 percent did not. know, 29 percent said imagination or mirages, 15 percent US secret weapons, 10 percent hoaxes, 3 percent weather forecasting devices and 1 percent Russian secret weapons. (35) (Or so my source has it though this only adds to 91 percent.) No-one, it seems, believed that they came from outer space (incidentally, it was not until three decades later that people started talking about Roswell) so they were not therefore of interest to members of I AM and others who believed in communication with other worlds.
However, Dr. Mead Layne of the Borderland Sciences Research Foundation in San Diego was somewhat ahead of his time. On 9 October 1946 a "black, torpedo-shaped" craft bad been sighted over the city, so he went to a medium named Mark Robert for information. He was told:
"This ship comes from west of the moon. [sic] No, I cannot get the name of the planet. These people have been trying to contact the earth for many years. The earth is now sending forth a strong ray or column of light, and this makes it easier of approach from other planets. Yes, these people come in peace. They are mare advanced than you are. Their bodies are similar to yours but much lighter.” (36)
Within the next few years Probert had produced mach more information, such as a descriptive list of seven types of ship “originating from Venus alone”, such as “A doughnut-shaped craft, about 125 feet in outside diameter and 36 feet thick. In the centre of this disk is a hole about 25 ‘w-et: wide. These craft are sometimes referred to as ‘Flying Laboratories’ because of the large amount of test equipment which they carry. They are observation craft and used only when very involved technical observations are required. Normal crew: fifty. ‘Electro-Magnetic Drive’” (37)
Meanwhile, the extraterrestrial theory had somehow got into circulation, being promoted by aviation writer Donald Keyhoe in a successful article in True magazine, which was expanded into a book, The Flying Saucers are Real, 1950. The same year saw the appearance of two other books, Frank Scully’s Behind the Flying Saucers, which alleged that they were crewed by three foot tall humanoids from Venus, and Gerald Heard’s Flying Saucers: Is Another World Watching?, which proposed that they were piloted by intelligent insects from Mars. The idea that saucers were alien spacecraft soon found its way onto the big screen in The Thing and The Day the Earth Stood Still both 1951, so by then most people must have been at least aware of the hypothesis.
In 1950 Lyman H. Streeter, a radio operator for the Santa Fe Railroad who lived in Winslow. Arizona, had “appeared one day at work acting in a very strange manner. He went about his assigned radio tasks in the normal way, but his fellow workers noticed he wouldn’t answer them when they spoke to him and behaved as if he were in a trance of some kind. His wife was called, and he was taken home. For eight days he was in this unusual ‘zombie’ condition. He said nothing to anyone during that period. Later, when he regained a state of normalcy, he admitted he couldn’t remember a thing that had transpired during those eight days of amnesia.”
On 22 August 1952, Lyman saw what he thought was a very small meteor display over Winslow. Later that evening the Streeters and other witnesses started hearing code signals in the living room of the house. He thought it was coming from his ham-receiver, but this was switched off, and the sounds could not be heard in the radio shack. He started to hear these signals regularly, though the later ones actually did come through his radio: he interpreted them as messages from space people. After this, he suddenly remembered something of what had happened during his period of amnesia:
“He told us that he apparently had left his earthly body (that would account for the zombie condition … the physical body had gone about is usual tasks at work under the direction of the animal mind, while the entity had been elsewhere) and awoke in a beautiful, large hall where many people were gathering. He was called before a tribunal and noticed that he was dressed in fine garments. He was called by a different name, Kanet, and told that he must work rapidly to complete his task upon the earth planet. All he could remember from this eight-day journey was the fact that he must work quickly.”
This moved him to work much harder at studying electronics. (38) He did indeed have to work rapidly, since he died on 23 April 1955.
It would appear that there was a great deal of UFO activity in July and August of 1952, mostly over California and the neighbouring state of Arizona, and it set off in turn a wave of contactee stories. On 4 July Calvin Girvin, originally from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, but later of Hollywood (it is unclear where he lived in 1952) went to sleep only to find himself going off into the astral. At first he thought that he had died: “I was relieved to discover that death could be so uncomplicated and easy”. In fact he went off to Venus and entered a large, white round temple, where there were many other earth people who had come by the same method. Seven men came and lectured them: “Peace has long been overdue on earth, and each of you has a mission to fulfill.” (39)
The experiences of Orfeo Angelucci (left) included one similar to that of Lyman Streeter: he related that one day in January 1953 “I was aware of a familiar odd prickling sensation in my arms and the back of my neck which usually announced the proximity of space craft.” He felt drowsy, wentto a divan to lie down, and the next thing he knew, he found himself working at his job in the Lockheed factory. When he looked at a newspaper he learned to his astonishment that a whole week had gone by, of which he had no recollection. His wife and workmates had not noticed anything unusual in his behaviour.
It was not until September of that year that be recalled what had happened. No sooner had he fallen asleep on the divan than he found himself on another would, an ethereal place of a higher ‘vibratory rate’ than the Earth. He was told by two locals, named Lyra and Orion that they were on one of the remnants of the planet Lucifer, whose people had become corrupted by pride, causing their planet to shatter and form the asteroid belt. “Lucifer and his followers were cast down from their high estate. In simpler words, the Luciferians who were embodied then in the most attenuated manifestation of matter `fell’ into embodiments in one of the most dense material evolutions, which is the animalistic evolution of Earth.” The few who had not fallen had remained on their asteroid ever since.(40)
Angelucci offered no explanation as to why he had been seen to be on Earth, going about his usual business. at the same time as he was on another world; and neither he nor Streeter could account for why they forgot their trips for months This suggests that their journeys were actual mental events, if that means anything. Another example is My Trip To Mars, by William Ferguson (41) which makes it clear that he did not go there in his body, but “in the expanded state of being”, as a Fourth Dimensional entity – in other words in what occultists call the astral body.
A South African woman named Elizabeth Klarer wrote that she first contacted the spacemen when she was unconscious following an explosion in an airplane hangar, and that her second trip was taken in the astral whilst her physical body was sitting in her living room. On the other hand, she described her journey to the planet Meton as if it were physically real – indeed, the ufonauts even took her motor car along with them. She claimed to have borne a child to a Metonite, which, it has been observed, was in violation of the Apartheid regime’s strict laws against interracial couplings. (42)
When ufologist Tim Good asked her what evidence she had for hear story, she showed him a potted plant and told him that she had brought it back with her from Meton. He took a photograph of it, and was disappointed to be told later that it was an ordinary maidenhair fern. (43) It seems to me, however that this does not in fact undermine her account. since, if Meton has human life so similar to that of Earth that they can even interbreed with us, then quite likely the planet’s flora would also be almost identical.
Most often, the entitles were reported to come from Venus, Mars, and other planets in our solar system. Now, by the 1950s it was known that the planets from Jupiter to Neptune are frozen balls of gas, unsuitable for life ‘as we know it’, and the others highly dubious. Strughold, The Given and Red Planet, 1954, for instance, suggested that simple plants such as lichen could exist on Mars, but recognised that the atmosphere was too thin to sustain anything more complicated. Venus was not finally proven uninhabitable until the Venera 4 probe landed there in 1967, but it only confirmed what scientists had long expected. Of course, science fiction writers did not necessarily know, or care, about these facts – as late as 1979 there was an episode of Dr Who so on a curiously earth-like Pluto – and one might suppose that the same was true of contactees. Yet it is strange that some of the aliens appeared to know less about astronomy than those they contacted.
One of the first non-Californian contactees, Dan Martin, was driving through a remote part of Texas in August 1955 when he felt his whole body tingling, perhaps a sign of entering a trance. Fearing that he night be having a heart attack, he pulled his car over and stopped. At once a spaceship landed on the other side of the road. An attractive lady astronaut stepped out and started a conversation with him, “Now she told me that they were from the planet Mercury, so I then said, ‘Our scientists tell us that the planet Mercury is too near the sun to have animal life.’ She smiled rather broadly at this and said, ‘You see I am alive.’ Well, that settled that. I had to admit that she seemed very much alive to me.” (44) Another good-looking spacewoman, Aura Rhanes, told Californian Truman Bethurum that her planet Clarion was “on the other side of the Moon”. Aware that this made no sense. he suggested that what she had meant was the other side of the sun (45) though in fact if there was such a planet astronomers could have detected its gravitational pull, as the Condon committee was at pains to point out. (46) Once again, these anomalies suggest that at least some people imagined that they were telling the truth about their meetings with the space people.
This is probably true also of Cecil Michael’s Round Trip to Hell in a Flying Saucer. (47) Following a sighting of a mysterious flying disc over Bakersfield, California, in August 1952, Michael wrote that two men in old-fashioned garments started materialising in his automobile repair shop. Then one day, about the end of that year, he found himself going on a trip aboard a saucer. He related that it was not physically real. In fact his body was in his workshop all the time, indeed occasionally something would happen that needed his attention – such as a telephone call – and he would snap out of his extraterrestrial journey to deal with it. But once it was over he found himself “out there” again. Yet, as it occurred, it seemed totally real.
The craft went off into space, eventually arriving at a bleak red planet with a lake of fire into which coffins were cast, the dead bodies inside them then coming to life and burning in agony. He was afraid that he would be trapped there permanently, but apparently he was saved by a vision of Christ that appeared in a beam of white light, and returned to earth. The trip seemed to have taken four days, but only four hours had passed. Here the scientific trappings are kept to the minimum, the main narrative being a familiar mystical one, the Vision of Inferno. It would be interesting to know Michael’s religious background.
In fact, though possessing highly advanced technology, the aliens seldom discussed it in any detail. One was `A-lan’ who explained the saucers’ propulsion method thus: “When certain elements such as platinum are properly prepared and treated with a saturation exposure to a beam of very high energy photons, the binding energy particle will be generated outside the nucleus. Since these particles tend to repel each other as well as all matter they, like the electron, tend to migrate to the surface of the metal where they manifest as a repellent force” (48) So far as I know this phenomenon has never been duplicated by earth scientists.
Actually, it is curiously dated; the existence of the ‘binding energy particle’ had been predicted by the Japanese physicist Yukawa in 1935, though the theory did not become well known until after the Second World War; butt this name for it was rapidly replaced by the technical word. In any case, why should outer space science be explicable in the existent terminology of the 1950s? If you were to try to explain what a meson is to a Renaissance astronomer or a Victorian engineer, then it would take a long time because you would first have to introduce them to a series of new concepts, such as nucleons. One might expect to meet the same problem when describing extraterrestrial drive mechanisms.
More often, however, the flying saucer entities had a spiritual message for humanity, couched in terms familiar to a Californian New Agers, as most of the contactees were, for instance: “In the age of the Atlanteans the evils of Earth were multiplied by the Evil ones who fled from the exploded planet called Lucifer, and who created the same evil on Earth as they had created on their planet. False worship grew and multiplied on Earth at their direction, and the fallen angels of Lucifer led astray many of Earth’s inhabitants. Seeing this, the wise ones of Venus came to Earth in their craft.” (19)
In Britain, the subject was espoused most notably by aristocrats with backgrounds in occultism. Lord Hugh Dowding, who had been Chief Marshal of the RAF during the Battle of Britain, might be presumed thereby to be an authority on flying objects, but perhaps more significantly was a practising spiritualist, who had published Many Mansions, (1943), which contained messages from soldiers who had been killed in the war. Brinsley le Poer Trench, later the Earl of Clancarty, was to judge from his writings steeped in Theosophical literature.
The best known was of the early writers was Desmond Leslie, whose Telegraph obituary stated that: “After Ampleforth and Trinity College, Dublin, Leslie became a fighter pilot in the RAF, flying Spitfires and Hurricanes during the Second World War; according to family legend, he destroyed several aircraft, most of which he was piloting himself. He celebrated VE day with his cousin, the Prime Minister, at 10 Downing Street” His varied career also involved composing background music for Dr Who and opening a night club at the family seat, Castle Leslie, where he entertained such guests as Mick Jagger and Marianne Faithful.
By 1952 Leslie had completed a manuscript in which, although he described himself as a Catholic, much of his information came from Spiritualist and Theosophical literature. He quoted W. J. Crawford’s The Reality of Psychic Phenomena as evidence for levitation occurring in seances, which, he thought, could explain flying saucer propulsion. From Blavatsky and her successors he derived the stogy of the Lords of the Flame coming from Venus, though unlike them he dated their arrival to 18,617,841 BC.
At the suggestion of an editor, Leslie’s book was combined, under the title Flying Saucers Have Landed, with a narrative by George Adamski, whom we have already seen peddling New Age philosophy in 1930s California. Perhaps because his Mastery of English never quite got perfected, Adamski’s post-war books were ghost-written by a succession of female disciples. Though the first of these, Pioneers of Space: A Trip to the Moon, Mars and Venus, was admitted fiction, it is said that it bore a curious resemblance to his later supposedly factual adventures, in its description of Saturnians, Martonians and Venetians [sic], once in references to vegitation on the Moon and a ‘Saturn Council’. One of his later publications, The Science of Life Study Course, turned out on examination to be a reprint of Wisdom of the Masters of the Far East, except that throughout the references to ‘The Royal Order of Tibet’ as the source of the teachings had been replaced by `The Space Brothers’. (50) In his present contribution, he claimed to have regularly seen alien craft over his home, and later met the pilot of a saucer that landed out in the desert. As proof he had a large number of photographs, not all of them blurred and out of focus, and affidavits from half a dozen people who swore that they had seen him chatting to a Venusian. One of these, George Hunt Williamson, had himself been in touch, by way of the ouija board, with such entities Oara, ‘the planetary representative of Saturn’ who flew about in craft that they termed `Crystal Bells’. (51) He would later go on to write several books of his own.
Personal experiences of Adamski varied. Desmond Leslie once asked him: “George dammit! Do you swear by all that’s sacred you are telling the truth?” Adamski replied quietly: “Desmond, you know my religious beliefs? One of these days I shall have to face my Maker. Do you think I’d dare face Him with a lie like that on my conscience?” (52) Yet Ray Stanford, who began as an earnest disciple, reported that he would get cynical when he had been drinking: “The Prohibition was a good thing for me, boys. You’re too young to know about it, but hell, they outlawed the liquor all over the country. Hell, I got the Royal Order of Tibet – all incorporated and everything! I got the special license – for religious purposes I can make the wine. Gottdammit! Hell, I made, enough wine for all of Southern California! I was making a fortune. Then that man Roosevelt, he knock out the Prohibition. Hell, if it hadn’t been for that gottdammed man Roosevelt – I wouldn’t had to get into this saucer crap.” (53)
The contactees were definitely indebted to the earlier generations of New Age: writers. Williamson quoted, among others, Swedenborg, Ramacharaka, Oahspe, Ilive’s Book of Jasber, and Phylos the Tibetan.( 54) In places one finds remarkable similarities between pre-1947 and post-1947 narratives:
“I looked up, and Saint Germane smilingly extended to me a crystal cup filled with golden liquid about the consistency of honey. Obedient to his slightest wish I drank it, and instant’s, a radiant glow passed through my body. When I had finished, the cup disappeared in my hand.” (Guy Ballard. (55)
“…the voice said: “Drink from the, crystal cup you will find on the fender of your car, Orfeo.” Astonished at his words, I glanced down and saw a kind of goblet … I lifted it to my lips and tasted the drink. It was the most delicious beverage I had ever tasted. I drained the cup. Even as I was drinking a feeling of strength and well-being swept over me … I placed the empty cup back on the fender of my car only to see it disappear.” (Orfeo Angelucci (56)
There is a possible connection of Guy Ballard with Adamski and Williamson through far-right politics, since the membership of I AM “overlapped strongly” with that of the Silver Shirts. Jacques Vallee claims that Adamski “had prewar connections” with William Dudley Pelley. In about 1950 Hunt Williamson worked for Pelley at his publishing house, Soulcraft, and Vallee suggests, may have been introduced to Adamski by Pelley. (57)
The descriptions by Adamski and others of blonde, blue-eyed aliens has led to suggestions of racism, which such far-right links tend to confirm. Not much in the way of racial propaganda can be found in their printed literature, but there are signs they were less discreet in private. John Keel, who personally interviewed dozens, wrote: “Some contactees who claimed to have visited Mars blandly point out that the planet is divided into zones with the Negro and Jewish Martians carefully segregated from the others. (58)
In 1953 a Michigan woman named Dorothy Martin awoke one morning to find “a kind of tingling or numbness in my arm”. Without knowing why she picked up a pencil and pad. “My hand began to write in another handwriting.” She eventually found that she had produced a message from her deceased father. Fifteen years before this, it should be noted, she had attended some lectures on Theosophy, which had inspired her to read Oahspe and the works of Guy Ballard.
Other entities soon started coming through, ‘The Elder Brother’, then beings from the planets Clarion and Ceres, and in mid-April 1954 she received the first of many messages from a spaceman called Sananda. This name is Sanskrit, given in Hindu belief to one of the Kumaras, enlightened beings whose job is to help humanity. They found their way into Theosophy, some obscure remarks being made about them in Blavatsky’s Secret Doctrine: “The Kumaras, for instance, are called the ‘Four’ – though in reality seven in number – because Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatana and Sanatkumara are the chief … These prototypes are connectes with the Kumaras who appear on the scene of action by refusing as Sanatkumata and Sananda – to ‘create progeny.’ Yet they are called the ‘creators’ of (thinking) man.” (59)
As we have seen, Blavatsky introduced the Lords of the Flame, whom Besant and Leadbeater described as coming from Venus; they also identified them with the Kumaras, (60), and described the doings of their leader, Sanat Kumara, at some length. These beings were, unsurprisingly, mentioned by Guy Ballard: “The Seven Kumaras, whom some Inner students have known as ‘Lords of the Flame’, from Venus, were the Only Ones from this entire system of planets, who of their own free will and infinite Love, offered to guard the children of earth and assist their upward progress.” (61)
Desmond Leslie wrote: “Earth, Mars and Venus were in ideal conjunction for their great vehicle to travel the immense physical distance separating the two planets. Thus to Earth came the Lord of the Flame or Sanat Kumara, with his Four Great Lords an one hundred assistants.” (62) Thus, if you were generally familiar with this literature, and you were to communicate with a being from another planet, nothing would be more natural than that he should he named Sananda. It would appear that, besides dictating a large quantity of automatic writing, Sananda made a number of telephone calls to Martin and even made a personal call on her, in company with four other ufonauts; though some other members of the group that had sprung up around her suspected that these visitors were actually hoaxers. Eventually she was informed that America was going to slide into the sea on 21 December 1954. She and her disciples would be saved, however, as spaceships would come and pick them up. That day, therefore, they gathered in the back garden to await rescue. No flying saucer showed up, but, fortunately, neither did the predicted cataclysm occur. (63)
To sum up, the contactees of the 1950s onwards were not, as appeared at first sight, a new movement, but the end product of a long evolution which, insofar as it had a beginning, went right back to the eighteenth century, No doubt we have not heard the last of it. At the present day, I am reliably informed, Sananda regularly transmits messages to a woman in Glastonbury
1. Jacob Ilive. The Oration Spoke at Joyners hall in Thamesstreet, London, 1733, pp. 1. 8.
2. Thomas Hartwell Horne, Bibliographical Notes on the Book of Jasher, London, 1833.
3. Jacob Ilive, Reasons Offered for the Reformation of the House of Correction in Clerkenwell, London, 1757.
4. Account “taken from Mr. Shearsmith, by Robt. Armitstead. London, Dec. 20th, 1810″, quoted in William E. A. Axon, Was Swedenborg a Vegetarian? (pamphlet, text of paper read at the Vegetarian Society, Manchester. 18 October 1909).
5. Emanuel Swedenborg. Concerning the Earths in our Solar System, London. 1787, pp.3, 4, 144.
6. Swedenborg, Concerning the Earths in our Solar System, p.125.
7. H. P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine. Theosophical Publishing House, London, 1921, Volume 2, pp.18-21.
8. Annie Besant & Charles Leadbeater, Man: Whence, How and Whither, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar & Madras, 1913, pp.79, 101-3.
9. Yogi Ramacharaka, Fourteen Lectures on Yogi Philosophy, Oak Park, Illinois. 1903, pp.237, 239.
10. Francis King, Ritual Magic, New English Library, 1972, p.125.
11. John Keel, UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse, Abacus, 1973, pp.246-47.
12. Oahspe, Kosmon Press, Lancing, Sussex, 1960, p.25 (Book of Sethantes 7:1.)
13. David Hanna, Cults in America, Tower Publications, New York, 1979, pp. 133-5.
14. Parahamsa Yogananda. Autobiography of a Yogi, Rider, London. 1949, pp.389-90.
15. Max Heindel, The Rosicrucian Cosma-Conception, Oceanside, California, no date, p.190.
16. Lou Zinstagg & Timothy Good, George Adamski: The Untold Story, Ceti Publications, Beckenham, 1983, plates 4, 49.
17. “Phylos the Tibetan”, A Dweller on Two Planets, reprint by Steiner Books, pp.14, 248, 310.
18. L. Sprague De Camp, Lost Continents, Dover Publications, New York. 1970, pp.71-2.
19. W. S. Cervé, Lemuria: The Lost Continent of the Pacific, Rosicrucian Library Volume XII, Rosicrucian Press, AMORC College, San Jose, California, 2nd edition 1935, pp.254-5.
20. Quoted in Lewis Spence, The Problem of Lemuria, Rider, London, 1932, p.104. 21. Gerald B. Bryan. Psychic Dictatorship in America, Truth Research Publications, Los Angeles, 1940; pp.26-27.
22. Martin S. Kottmeyer, ‘Jelly Pelley’. Magonia Supplement 39, 1 July 2002.
23. Bryan, Psychic Dictatorship in America, pp.41, 47.
24. “Phylos the Tibetan”. A Dweller on Two Planets, pp.270-3.
25. `Godfré Ray King’ (Guy Ballard), Unveiled Mysteries, Saint Germain Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1935, p.75.
26. “Phylos the Tibetan”, A Dweller on Two Planets, p.292.
27. Ballard, Unveiled Mysteries, pp.243, 247
28. Bryan, Psychic Dictatorship, pp.54-55, 59-61.
29. Dana Howard, My Flight to Venus, Regency Press, 1956.
30. David Michael Jacobs, The UFO Controversy in America, Signet, 1976, p.106.
31. Dana Howard, Diane: She Came From Venus, Regency Press, 1956, p.39.
32. M. K. Jessup, The UFO Annual. Arco, 1956, pp122-23.
33. James R. Lewis, UFOs and Popular Culture: An Encyclopedia of Contemporary Myth, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California. 2000, p.92
34. UFOs in America 1947. Uncovered Editions, The Stationery Office, London. 2001, pp.16-17, 23, 42, 52, 59-60.
35. Bryan Appleyard, Aliens: Why They Are Here, Scribner, 2005, p.18.
36. Winfield S. Brownell, UFOs: Key to Earth’s Destiny, Legion of Light Publications, Lytle Creek, California, 1980, p.93.
37. Desmond Leslie & George Adamski, Flying Saucers Have Landed, Werner Laurie, London, 1953, p.128.
38. George Hunt Williamson, The Saucers Speak, Neville Spearman, 1967,pp. 126, 131-2.
39. Brownwell, UFOs, pp.113-14.
40. Orfeo Angelucci, The Secret of the Saucers, Amherst Press, 1955, pp.85, 99.
41. Galaxy Press, 1973, but apparently written in 1955; his trip was on 12 January 1947.
42. Elizabeth Klarer, Beyond the Light Barrier, Aquarian Press, Cape Town, South Africa, 1987.
43. Timothy Good, Alien Base, Arrow. 1994, p.4.
44. Dan Martin: The Watcher – Seven Hours Aboard a Space Ship, Saucerian Publications, Clarksburg, West Virginia, no date, p.3.
45. Janet & Colin Bord, Life Beyond Planet Earth? Grafton paperback. 1992, p.157.
46. Dr. Edward U. Condon. Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, Bantam Books, New York, 1969, pp.30-1, 853-4.
47. Roofhopper Enterprises, Auckland, N.Z.. 1971; 1st by Vantage Press. New York, 1955.
48. Quoted in Jacobs, The UFO Controversy in America, p.99.
49. Helen & Betty Mitchell, We Met the Space People, Galaxy Press, Kitchener, Ontario, 1973, p.13.
50. Zinsstag & Good, George Adamski, pp.188-91.
51. Williamson, The Saucers Speak, p.50.
52. Leslie, Flying Saucers Have Landed, revised edition, Futura, 1977, p.195.
53. Quoted in Douglas Curran, In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space, Abbeville Press, New York, 1985, p.72.
54. George Hunt Williamson, Other Tongues – Other Flesh, Neville Spearman, 1967. 55. Ballard, Unveiled Mysteries, pp.68-9.
56. Angelucci, The Secret of the Saucers, pp.6-7.
57. Jacques Vallee, Messengers of Deception, And/OR Press, Berkeley, California, 1979, pp.192-3.
58. John Keel, Our Haunted Planet, Futura, 1975, p.85.
59. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, I. p.116, II, pp.617-18.
60. Theodore Besterman, A Dictionary of Theosophy, Theosophical Publishing House, London, 1927, p.63.
61. Ballard, Unveiled Mysteries, p.252.
62. Leslie. Flying Saucers Have Landed, p.166.
63. Leon Festinger, Henry W. Reiken & Stanley Schachter, When Prophecy Fails, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1956, pp.33-4,
152, John Keel. UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse, Abacus, London, 1973, p.279.